Intelligence: Intelligence is the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one’s environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria. The goal of intelligence tests is to obtain an idea of the person’s intellectual potential. Different kinds of test are used depending on the age of the individual.
Learning Disability/ Dyslexia: Learning disabilities are due to genetic and/or neurobiological factors that alter brain functioning in a manner that affects one or more cognitive processes related to learning. These processing problems can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing, and/or math. Here in learning disability the child is performing two grades below his/her current grade despite of all opportunities and having average level of intelligence. It includes screening (interview, test, inventories, and/or review of medical, school).
Autism: Autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), refers to a broad range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, communication, social reciprocity , repetitive motor behaviours, echolalic speech primarily.
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopment disorders of childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. Children with ADHD may have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors (may act without thinking about consequences of actions), or be overly active. Many children may seem to fall into this behaviour classification. However, children with ADHD don’t just grow/snap out of it.
Memory Testing: Five types of memories have been identified. Semantic memory is a memory for facts, episodic memory is autobiographical memory, procedural memory is a memory for the performance of skills, priming is memory facilitated by prior exposure to a stimulus and working memory is a form of short term memory for information manipulation.
Attention and concentration: attention is cognitive and behavioral mechanism of focusing exclusively on a single stimulus while ignoring other perceptible stimulus. Concentration is described as being able to give our indivisible attention to the exclusion of all distractions. Many students express frustration with their ability to focus, and feel that they are not performing as well as they want.
Personality: Personality is defined as the characteristic sets of behaviours, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors, on the basis of which they can be predicted by and large. Respondentsdemonstrate their degree of agreement with each object. For example, an item on a personality questionnaire may ask respondents to rate the respondents’ level of agreement on a scale from 1 (“strongly disagree”) to 5 (“strongly agree”) with the statement “I speak to a lot of different people at parties”).
Mental retardation: refers to significant limitations in actual functioning. It begins before the age of 18 and is characterised by significantly understated intellectual functioning, existing in applicable adaptive skill areas and limited communications. A significant step in mental retardation treatment is a detailed history of the patient and family.